There is no question that fermentation takes place accidentally (as it must have done countless times before humans learned something about controlling the process), and most investigators believe that barley was first cultivated in the Fertile Crescent region of lower Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Grain is heavy to transport relative to the beer made from it, so it is not surprising that there may be evidence of ale in these outposts and not unreasonable to suspect that accidental fermentation did occur at some point in the ancient Mesopotamian region, leading to beer making." ---Cambridge World History of Food, Kenneth F.
A fire is kindled in the bottom and the dough is slapped against the hot interior walls, yielding curved disks of bread.
Many other sorts of oven have been discovered in Israeli excavations.
Instead of placing the dough pieces for baking on the bottom or sole of the baking chamber, the Jews put the pieces on the sides.
Being damp and sticky they remained in place intil they had dried out, when they fell to the bottom of the oven.
These ovens or hearths took the form of clay-covered hollows in the floor which were heated with burning wood.
For six thousand years and more it is the oven, however crude or complex, which has transformed the sticky wet dough into bread.
It is the oven which influences the final character of the loaf; the effieciencycy of an oven, or lack of it, can determine the success or failure of any bread baker's business. It was the Egyptians who first used a manufactured portable oven.
There is an alternate theory regarding the invention of brewing.
Some historians believe it is possible that brewing began when the first cereal crops were domesticated.